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Research article
Empirical analysis comparing the tele-objective structured clinical examination and the in-person assessment in Australia  
Jonathan Zachary Felthun, Silas Taylor, Boaz Shulruf, Digby Wigram Allen
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2021;18:23.   Published online September 23, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2021.18.23
  • 5,138 View
  • 227 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
It aimed to compare the use of the tele-objective structured clinical examination (teleOSCE) with in-person assessment in high-stakes clinical examination so as to determine the impact of the teleOSCE on the assessment undertaken. Discussion follows regarding what skills and domains can effectively be assessed in a teleOSCE.
Methods
This study is a retrospective observational analysis. It compares the results achieved by final year medical students in their clinical examination, assessed using the teleOSCE in 2020 (n=285), with those who were examined using the traditional in-person format in 2019 (n=280). The study was undertaken at the University of New South Wales, Australia.
Results
In the domain of physical examination, students in 2020 scored 0.277 points higher than those in 2019 (mean difference=–0.277, P<0.001, effect size=0.332). Across all other domains, there was no significant difference in mean scores between 2019 and 2020.
Conclusion
The teleOSCE does not negatively impact assessment in clinical examination in all domains except physical examination. If the teleOSCE is the future of clinical skills examination, assessment of physical examination will require concomitant workplace-based assessment.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Feasibility and reliability of the pandemic-adapted online-onsite hybrid graduation OSCE in Japan
    Satoshi Hara, Kunio Ohta, Daisuke Aono, Toshikatsu Tamai, Makoto Kurachi, Kimikazu Sugimori, Hiroshi Mihara, Hiroshi Ichimura, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Hideki Nomura
    Advances in Health Sciences Education.2024; 29(3): 949.     CrossRef
  • Feasibility of an online clinical assessment of competence in physiotherapy students
    Brooke Flew, Lucy Chipchase, Darren Lee, Jodie A. McClelland
    Physiotherapy Theory and Practice.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Radiography education in 2022 and beyond - Writing the history of the present: A narrative review
    Y.X. Tay, J.P. McNulty
    Radiography.2023; 29(2): 391.     CrossRef
  • Newly appointed medical faculty members’ self-evaluation of their educational roles at the Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine in 2020 and 2021: a cross-sectional survey-based study
    Sun Kim, A Ra Cho, Chul Woon Chung
    Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions.2021; 18: 28.     CrossRef
Review
Assessment methods and the validity and reliability of measurement tools in online objective structured clinical examinations: a systematic scoping review  
Jonathan Zachary Felthun, Silas Taylor, Boaz Shulruf, Digby Wigram Allen
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2021;18:11.   Published online June 1, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2021.18.11
  • 7,024 View
  • 401 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has required educators to adapt the in-person objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to online settings in order for it to remain a critical component of the multifaceted assessment of a student’s competency. This systematic scoping review aimed to summarize the assessment methods and validity and reliability of the measurement tools used in current online OSCE (hereafter, referred to as teleOSCE) approaches. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines. Articles were eligible if they reported any form of performance assessment, in any field of healthcare, delivered in an online format. Two reviewers independently screened the results and analyzed relevant studies. Eleven articles were included in the analysis. Pre-recorded videos were used in 3 studies, while observations by remote examiners through an online platform were used in 7 studies. Acceptability as perceived by students was reported in 2 studies. This systematic scoping review identified several insights garnered from implementing teleOSCEs, the components transferable from telemedicine, and the need for systemic research to establish the ideal teleOSCE framework. TeleOSCEs may be able to improve the accessibility and reproducibility of clinical assessments and equip students with the requisite skills to effectively practice telemedicine in the future.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Feasibility and reliability of the pandemic-adapted online-onsite hybrid graduation OSCE in Japan
    Satoshi Hara, Kunio Ohta, Daisuke Aono, Toshikatsu Tamai, Makoto Kurachi, Kimikazu Sugimori, Hiroshi Mihara, Hiroshi Ichimura, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Hideki Nomura
    Advances in Health Sciences Education.2024; 29(3): 949.     CrossRef
  • A level playing field? Evaluation of the virtual Objective Structured Clinical Examination in Psychiatry and Addiction Medicine: A mixed methods study
    Rebecca E Reay, Paul A Maguire, Jeffrey CL Looi
    Australasian Psychiatry.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The virtual Clinical Assessment of Skills and Competence: the impact and challenges of a digitised final examination
    Kenny Chu, Shivanthi Sathanandan
    BJPsych Bulletin.2023; 47(2): 110.     CrossRef
  • Virtual Learning and Assessment in Rheumatology Fellowship Training: Objective Structured Clinical Examination Revisited
    Rachel M. Wolfe, Faye N. Hant, Rumey C. Ishizawar, Lisa G. Criscione‐Schreiber, Beth L. Jonas, Kenneth S. O'Rourke, Marcy B. Bolster
    Arthritis Care & Research.2023; 75(12): 2435.     CrossRef
  • Innovations in assessment in health professions education during the COVID‐19 pandemic: A scoping review
    Jamal Giri, Claire Stewart
    The Clinical Teacher.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of the Utility of Online Objective Structured Clinical Examination Conducted During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Mona Arekat, Mohamed Hany Shehata, Abdelhalim Deifalla, Ahmed Al-Ansari, Archana Kumar, Mohamed Alsenbesy, Hamdi Alshenawi, Amgad El-Agroudy, Mariwan Husni, Diaa Rizk, Abdelaziz Elamin, Afif Ben Salah, Hani Atwa
    Advances in Medical Education and Practice.2022; Volume 13: 407.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of student pharmacists' performance on in-person vs. virtual OSCEs in a pre-APPE capstone course
    Justine S. Gortney, Joseph P. Fava, Andrew D. Berti, Brittany Stewart
    Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning.2022; 14(9): 1116.     CrossRef
  • Is online objective structured clinical examination teaching an acceptable replacement in post-COVID-19 medical education in the United Kingdom?: a descriptive study
    Vashist Motkur, Aniket Bharadwaj, Nimalesh Yogarajah
    Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions.2022; 19: 30.     CrossRef
  • Equal Z standard-setting method to estimate the minimum number of panelists for a medical school’s objective structured clinical examination in Taiwan: a simulation study
    Ying-Ying Yang, Pin-Hsiang Huang, Ling-Yu Yang, Chia-Chang Huang, Chih-Wei Liu, Shiau-Shian Huang, Chen-Huan Chen, Fa-Yauh Lee, Shou-Yen Kao, Boaz Shulruf
    Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions.2022; 19: 27.     CrossRef
  • Empirical analysis comparing the tele-objective structured clinical examination and the in-person assessment in Australia
    Jonathan Zachary Felthun, Silas Taylor, Boaz Shulruf, Digby Wigram Allen
    Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions.2021; 18: 23.     CrossRef
Research articles
Definition of professionalism and tools for assessing professionalism in pharmacy practice: a systematic review  
Huda Dubbai, Barbara-Ann Adelstein, Silas Taylor, Boaz Shulruf
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2019;16:22.   Published online August 21, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2019.16.22
  • 18,764 View
  • 449 Download
  • 21 Web of Science
  • 17 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
In contemporary pharmacy, the role of pharmacists has become more multifaceted, as they now handle a wider range of tasks and take more responsibility for providing patient care than 20 years ago. This evolution in pharmacists’ responsibilities has been accompanied by the need for pharmacists to display high-quality patient-centred care and counselling, and to demonstrate professionalism, which now needs to be taught and assessed as part of pharmacy education and practice. This study aimed at identifying definitions of professionalism in pharmacy practice and critically evaluating published instruments for assessing professionalism in pharmacy practice.
Methods
We searched the medical literature listed in Scopus, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2018. All papers meeting our selection criteria were reviewed and summarised into a clear review of professionalism requirements in pharmacy practice. Details of the instruments measuring professionalism were reviewed in detail.
Results
There is no accepted simple definition of professionalism, although we identified several theoretical and policy frameworks required for professional pharmaceutical practice. We identified 4 instruments (the Behavioural Professionalism Assessment Instrument, Lerkiatbundit’s instrument, the Pharmacy Professionalism Instrument, and the Professionalism Assessment Tool that build on these frameworks and measure professional practice in pharmacy students. These were found to be reliable and valid, but had only been used and tested in student populations.
Conclusion
Given the increasingly broad role of community pharmacists, there is a need for assessments of professionalism in practice. Professionalism is a complex concept that is challenging to measure because it has no standardised definition and the existing literature related to the topic is limited. Currently available instruments focus on measuring the development of the elements of professionalism among pharmacy students, rather than pharmacists.

Citations

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  • Integrating professional identity formation into experiential pharmacy education and training
    Lisa M Richter, Mate M Soric, Michelle L Hilaire, Nancy E Kawahara, Nathaniel Eraikhuemen
    American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy.2024; 81(1): e49.     CrossRef
  • Perceptions of formal pharmacy leadership on the social role of the profession and its historical evolution: A qualitative study
    Fernando de Castro Araújo-Neto, Aline Santana Dosea, Francielly Lima da Fonseca, Thaís Maria Araújo Tavares, Douglas de Menezes Santos, Déborah Mônica Machado Pimentel, Alessandra Rezende Mesquita, Divaldo Pereira de Lyra Jr
    Exploratory Research in Clinical and Social Pharmacy.2024; 13: 100405.     CrossRef
  • Assessment of Professionalism among Postgraduate Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study from Patna, Bihar
    Nidhi Prasad, Sundhareshwaran Chandrasekaran, Binay Kumar, Sanjay Kumar
    Cureus.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Michele A “Shelly” DeBiasse, Shannon M Peters, Baderha Bujiriri
    Feminism & Psychology.2023; 33(2): 276.     CrossRef
  • Preceptor Perceptions of Pharmacy Student Performance Before and After a Curriculum Transformation
    Catherine A. Forrester, Da Sol Lee, Ethel Hon, Kai Ying Lim, Tina P. Brock, Daniel T. Malone, Simon G. Furletti, Kayley M. Lyons
    American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education.2023; 87(2): ajpe8575.     CrossRef
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    Eiad AlFaris, Farhana Irfan, Noura Abouammoh, Nasriah Zakaria, Abdullah MA Ahmed, Omar Kasule, Dina M Aldosari, Nora A AlSahli, Mohammed Ghatar Alshibani, Gominda Ponnamperuma
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    Deanna Mill, Amy Theresa Page, Jacinta Johnson, Renae Lloyd, Sandra Salter, Kenneth Lee, Liza Seubert, Rhonda Marise Clifford, Danielle D’Lima
    BMJ Open.2023; 13(6): e070265.     CrossRef
  • Estamos preparando os futuros médicos para atendimentos de situações de violência com enfoque em gênero e em sexualidades não heterossexuais? Relato de uma “experiência” educacional diagnóstica
    Beatriz Angélica Cruz, Ana Flávia Azevedo Querichelli, Lucas Uback, Alba Regina de Abreu Lima, Júlio César André
    Interface - Comunicação, Saúde, Educação.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Beatriz Angélica Cruz, Ana Flávia Azevedo Querichelli, Lucas Uback, Alba Regina de Abreu Lima, Júlio César André
    Interface - Comunicação, Saúde, Educação.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the “Modification of Hall’s professionalism scale for use with pharmacists”
    Fernando de Castro Araújo Neto, Thaís Maria Araújo Tavares, Douglas de Menezes Santos, Francielly Lima da Fonseca, Dyego Carlos Souza Anacleto de Araújo, Alessandra Rezende Mesquita, Divaldo Pereira de Lyra
    BMC Medical Education.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Natalie Rosario, Joshua Wollen
    Journal of the American Pharmacists Association.2022; 62(2): 424.     CrossRef
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    Yen-Ming Huang, Hsun-Yu Chan, Ping-Ing Lee, Yun-Wen Tang, Ta-Wei Chiou, Karin C.S. Chen Liu, Yunn-Fang Ho
    BMC Medical Education.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Yera Hur, Sanghee Yeo, Keumho Lee
    BMC Medical Education.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Helen Ireland, Julie Sowter, Rebecca O’Rourke
    International Journal of Pharmacy Practice.2022; 30(4): 367.     CrossRef
  • Tatted not tattered
    Natalie Rosario, Joshua Wollen
    Journal of the American Pharmacists Association.2022; 62(5): 1538.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of an Instrument to Assess Students’ Personal and Professional Development During the Faculty Advising Process
    Justine S. Gortney, Minakshi Lahiri, Chris Giuliano, Heba Saleem, Mehvish Khan, Francine Salinitri, Richard Lucarotti
    American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education.2021; 85(3): 8201.     CrossRef
  • Pharmacists’ clinical knowledge and practice in the safe use of contraceptives: real knowledge vs. self-perception and the implications
    Ana Golić Jelić, Ljiljana Tasić, Ranko Škrbić, Valentina Marinković, Svjetlana Stoisavljević Šatara, Nataša Stojaković, Vanda Marković Peković, Brian Godman
    BMC Medical Education.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Comparison of the effects of simulated patient clinical skill training and student roleplay on objective structured clinical examination performance among medical students in Australia  
Silas Taylor, Matthew Haywood, Boaz Shulruf
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2019;16:3.   Published online January 11, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2019.16.3
  • 20,966 View
  • 416 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Optimal methods for communication skills training (CST) are an active research area, but the effects of CST on communication performance in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) has not been closely studied. Student roleplay (RP) for CST is common, although volunteer simulated patient (SP) CST is cost-effective and provides authentic interactions. We assessed whether our volunteer SP CST program improved OSCE performance compared to our previous RP strategy.
Methods
We performed a retrospective, quasi-experimental study of 2 second-year medical student cohorts’ OSCE data in Australia. The 2014 cohort received RP-only CST (N=182) while the 2016 cohort received SP-only CST (N=148). The t-test and analysis of variance were used to compare the total scores in 3 assessment domains: generic communication, clinical communication, and physical examination/procedural skills.
Results
The baseline characteristics of groups (scores on the Australian Tertiary Admission Rank, Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test, and medicine program interviews) showed no significant differences between groups. For each domain, the SP-only CST group demonstrated superior OSCE outcomes, and the difference between cohorts was significant (P<0.01). The superiority of volunteer SP CST over student RP CST in terms of OSCE performance outcomes was found for generic communication, clinical communication, and physical examination/procedural skills.
Conclusion
The better performance of the SP cohort in physical examination/procedural skills might be explained by the requirement for patient compliance and cooperation, facilitated by good generic communication skills. We recommend a volunteer SP program as an effective and efficient way to improve CST among junior medical students.

Citations

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  • Perceived authenticity across three forms of educational simulations—the role of interactant representation, task alignment, and continuity of simulation
    Caroline Corves, Matthias Stadler, Martin R. Fischer
    European Journal of Psychology of Education.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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  • Improved detection of patient centeredness in objective structured clinical examinations through authentic scenario design
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    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Empirical analysis comparing the tele-objective structured clinical examination and the in-person assessment in Australia
    Jonathan Zachary Felthun, Silas Taylor, Boaz Shulruf, Digby Wigram Allen
    Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions.2021; 18: 23.     CrossRef
  • Raising rare disease awareness using red flags, role play simulation and patient educators: results of a novel educational workshop on Raynaud phenomenon and systemic sclerosis
    S. Sanges, M.-M. Farhat, M. Assaraf, J. Galland, E. Rivière, C. Roubille, M. Lambert, C. Yelnik, H. Maillard, V. Sobanski, G. Lefèvre, D. Launay, S. Morell-Dubois, E. Hachulla
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  • Improved clinical communication OSCE scores after simulation-based training: Results of a comparative study
    Alexandre Nuzzo, Alexy Tran-Dinh, Marie Courbebaisse, Hugo Peyre, Patrick Plaisance, Alexandre Matet, Brigitte Ranque, Albert Faye, Victoire de Lastours, Conor Gilligan
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The sights and insights of examiners in objective structured clinical examinations  
Lauren Chong, Silas Taylor, Matthew Haywood, Barbara-Ann Adelstein, Boaz Shulruf
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2017;14:34.   Published online December 27, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2017.14.34
  • 31,761 View
  • 407 Download
  • 35 Web of Science
  • 33 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is considered to be one of the most robust methods of clinical assessment. One of its strengths lies in its ability to minimise the effects of examiner bias due to the standardisation of items and tasks for each candidate. However, OSCE examiners’ assessment scores are influenced by several factors that may jeopardise the assumed objectivity of OSCEs. To better understand this phenomenon, the current review aims to determine and describe important sources of examiner bias and the factors affecting examiners’ assessments.
Methods
We performed a narrative review of the medical literature using Medline. All articles meeting the selection criteria were reviewed, with salient points extracted and synthesised into a clear and comprehensive summary of the knowledge in this area.
Results
OSCE examiners’ assessment scores are influenced by factors belonging to 4 different domains: examination context, examinee characteristics, examinee-examiner interactions, and examiner characteristics. These domains are composed of several factors including halo, hawk/dove and OSCE contrast effects; the examiner’s gender and ethnicity; training; lifetime experience in assessing; leadership and familiarity with students; station type; and site effects.
Conclusion
Several factors may influence the presumed objectivity of examiners’ assessments, and these factors need to be addressed to ensure the objectivity of OSCEs. We offer insights into directions for future research to better understand and address the phenomenon of examiner bias.

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Research Article
Australian medical students have fewer opportunities to do physical examination of peers of the opposite gender  
Silas Taylor, Boaz Shulruf
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2016;13:42.   Published online November 23, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2016.13.42
  • 25,610 View
  • 216 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Peer physical examination (PPE), by which junior medical students learn physical examination skills before practicing on patients, is a widely implemented and accepted part of medical curricula. However, the ethical implications of PPE have been debated, since issues including student gender impact on its acceptability. Research has previously demonstrated the phenomenon of ‘attitude-behavior inconsistency’ showing that students’ predictions about their participation in PPE differ from what they actually do in practice. This study asks whether gender and student self-ratings of outlook affect engagement in PPE. Methods: This study gathered data from students who had completed PPE with the objective of determining what factors have the greatest impact on the actual practice of PPE by students. Data were used to derive the number of opportunities students had to examine a peer, for various body parts. Respondent gender and self-ratings of outlook were recorded. Results: Responses from 130 students were analysed: 74 female (57%) and 56 male (43%). Students have fewer opportunities to examine peers of the opposite gender; this is statistically significant for all body parts when male students examine female peers. Conclusion: Gender is the factor of overriding importance on whether these peer interactions actually occur, such that students have fewer opportunities to examine peers of the opposite gender, particularly male students examining female peers. Student outlook has little impact. We speculate that the more acceptable PPE is to participants, paradoxically, the more complicated these interactions become, possibly with implications for future practice.

Citations

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Research article
Examiner seniority and experience are associated with bias when scoring communication, but not examination, skills in objective structured clinical examinations in Australia  
Lauren Chong, Silas Taylor, Matthew Haywood, Barbara-Ann Adelstein, Boaz Shulruf
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2018;15:17.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2018.15.17
  • 25,683 View
  • 281 Download
  • 19 Web of Science
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
The biases that may influence objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) scoring are well understood, and recent research has attempted to establish the magnitude of their impact. However, the influence of examiner experience, clinical seniority, and occupation on communication and physical examination scores in OSCEs has not yet been clearly established.
Methods
We compared the mean scores awarded for generic and clinical communication and physical examination skills in 2 undergraduate medicine OSCEs in relation to examiner characteristics (gender, examining experience, occupation, seniority, and speciality). The statistical significance of the differences was calculated using the 2-tailed independent t-test and analysis of variance.
Results
Five hundred and seventeen students were examined by 237 examiners at the University of New South Wales in 2014 and 2016. Examiner gender, occupation (academic, clinician, or clinical tutor), and job type (specialist or generalist) did not significantly impact scores. Junior doctors gave consistently higher scores than senior doctors in all domains, and this difference was statistically significant for generic and clinical communication scores. Examiner experience was significantly inversely correlated with generic communication scores.
Conclusion
We suggest that the assessment of examination skills may be less susceptible to bias because this process is fairly prescriptive, affording greater scoring objectivity. We recommend training to define the marking criteria, teaching curriculum, and expected level of performance in communication skills to reduce bias in OSCE assessment.

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JEEHP : Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions