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From articles published in Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions during the past two years (2021 ~ ).

Reviews
Sample size determination and power analysis using the G*Power software  
Hyun Kang
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2021;18:17.   Published online July 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2021.18.17
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  • 117 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Appropriate sample size calculation and power analysis have become major issues in research and publication processes. However, the complexity and difficulty of calculating sample size and power require broad statistical knowledge, there is a shortage of personnel with programming skills, and commercial programs are often too expensive to use in practice. The review article aimed to explain the basic concepts of sample size calculation and power analysis; the process of sample estimation; and how to calculate sample size using G*Power software (latest ver. 3.1.9.7; Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany) with 5 statistical examples. The null and alternative hypothesis, effect size, power, alpha, type I error, and type II error should be described when calculating the sample size or power. G*Power is recommended for sample size and power calculations for various statistical methods (F, t, χ2, Z, and exact tests), because it is easy to use and free. The process of sample estimation consists of establishing research goals and hypotheses, choosing appropriate statistical tests, choosing one of 5 possible power analysis methods, inputting the required variables for analysis, and selecting the “calculate” button. The G*Power software supports sample size and power calculation for various statistical methods (F, t, χ2, z, and exact tests). This software is helpful for researchers to estimate the sample size and to conduct power analysis.

Citations

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Educational applications of metaverse: possibilities and limitations  
Bokyung Kye, Nara Han, Eunji Kim, Yeonjeong Park, Soyoung Jo
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2021;18:32.   Published online December 13, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2021.18.32
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
This review aims to define the 4 types of the metaverse and to explain the potential and limitations of its educational applications. The metaverse roadmap categorizes the metaverse into 4 types: augmented reality, lifelogging, mirror world, and virtual reality. An example of the application of augmented reality in medical education would be an augmented reality T-shirt that allows students to examine the inside of the human body as an anatomy lab. Furthermore, a research team in a hospital in Seoul developed a spinal surgery platform that applied augmented reality technology. The potential of the metaverse as a new educational environment is suggested to be as follows: a space for new social communication; a higher degree of freedom to create and share; and the provision of new experiences and high immersion through virtualization. Some of its limitations may be weaker social connections and the possibility of privacy impingement; the commission of various crimes due to the virtual space and anonymity of the metaverse; and maladaptation to the real world for students whose identity has not been established. The metaverse is predicted to change our daily life and economy beyond the realm of games and entertainment. The metaverse has infinite potential as a new social communication space. The following future tasks are suggested for the educational use of the metaverse: first, teachers should carefully analyze how students understand the metaverse; second, teachers should design classes for students to solve problems or perform projects cooperatively and creatively; third, educational metaverse platforms should be developed that prevent misuse of student data.

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E-learning in health professions education during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review  
Aziz Naciri, Mohamed Radid, Ahmed Kharbach, Ghizlane Chemsi
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2021;18:27.   Published online October 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2021.18.27
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  • 22 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
As an alternative to traditional teaching, e-learning has enabled continuity of learning for health professions students during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This review explored health professions students; perceptions, acceptance, motivation, and engagement with e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, a systematic review was conducted by consulting 5 databases: PubMed, ERIC (Ebsco), Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument. The research protocol was previously registered in the PROSPERO registry (CRD42021237055). From 250 studies identified, 15 were selected with a total of 111,622 students. Mostly positive perceptions were reported in 7 of 12 studies, which mainly focused on technology access, possession of basic computer skills, pedagogical design of online courses, online interactions, and learning flexibility. However, predominantly negative perceptions were identified in 5 of 12 studies, which pointed out constraints related to internet connections, the use of educational platforms, and acquisition of clinical skills. Satisfactory levels of acceptance of distance learning were reported in 3 of 4 studies. For student motivation and engagement, 1 study reported similar or higher motivation than with traditional teaching, and another study indicated that student engagement significantly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Health professions students showed a positive response to e-learning regarding perceptions, acceptance, motivation, and engagement. Future research is needed to remediate the lack of studies addressing health professions students’ motivation and engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Editorial
Training in lung cancer surgery through the metaverse, including extended reality, in the smart operating room of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Korea
Huilyung Koo
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2021;18:33.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2021.18.33
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PDFSupplementary Material

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Research article
Correlation between academic self-efficacy and burnout originating from distance learning among nursing students in Indonesia during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic  
Ngatoiatu Rohmani, Rosi Andriani
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2021;18:9.   Published online May 11, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2021.18.9
  • 7,038 View
  • 486 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Distance learning, which became widespread in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has been a burdensome challenge for students and lecturers. This study investigated the relationship between academic self-efficacy and burnout in first-year nursing students who participated in distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods
The study included 69 first-year nursing students at Jenderal Achmad Yani University in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Data were collected in September 2020 through self-efficacy and burnout questionnaires that were distributed via email and social media for 2 weeks. The responses were analyzed using the gamma test.
Results
Most respondents were women (78.3%), with an average age of 19 years. Most nursing students had a moderate level of academic self-efficacy (72.5%), while only 13.0% of respondents had a low level of academic self-efficacy. However, 46.4% of students experienced severe burnout during distance learning. Cross-tabulation showed that students with moderate self-efficacy were more likely to experience severe burnout (24 respondents) (P<0.01 and r=-0.884). Exhaustion was the burnout dimension most closely associated with academic self-efficacy.
Conclusion
Students perceived distance learning as burdensome and reported high levels of exhaustion, which may negatively impact their academic achievement. Interventions to improve academic self-efficacy may foster students’ confidence, potentially leading to reduced burnout levels. Nurse educators should reflect upon innovative learning strategies to create a favorable learning environment for nursing students.

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Editorial
Application of computer-based testing in the Korean Medical Licensing Examination, the emergence of the metaverse in medical education, journal metrics and statistics, and appreciation to reviewers and volunteers
Sun Huh
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2022;19:2.   Published online January 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2022.19.2
  • 5,088 View
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  • 10 Citations
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    Çiğdem BAKIR
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Research article
Malaysian pharmacy students’ perspectives on the virtual objective structured clinical examination during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic  
Mohamed Hassan Elnaem, Muhammad Eid Akkawi, Nor Ilyani Mohamed Nazar, Norny Syafinaz Ab Rahman, Mohamad Haniki Nik Mohamed
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2021;18:6.   Published online April 12, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2021.18.6
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  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
This study investigated pharmacy students’ perceptions of various aspects of virtual objective structured clinical examinations (vOSCEs) conducted during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Malaysia.
Methods
This cross-sectional study involved third- and fourth-year pharmacy students at the International Islamic University Malaysia. A validated self-administered questionnaire was distributed to students who had taken a vOSCE a week before.
Results
Out of the 253 students who were approached, 231 (91.3%) completed the questionnaire. More than 75% of the participants agreed that the instructions and preparations were clear and helpful in familiarizing them with the vOSCE flow. It was found that 53.2% of the respondents were satisfied with the flow and conduct of the vOSCE. However, only approximately one-third of the respondents believed that the tasks provided in the vOSCE were more convenient, less stressful, and easier to perform than those in the conventional OSCE. Furthermore, 49.7% of the students favored not having a vOSCE in the future when conducting a conventional OSCE becomes feasible again. Internet connection was reported as a problem hindering the performance of the vOSCE by 51.9% of the participants. Students who were interested in clinical pharmacy courses were more satisfied than other students with the preparation and operation of the vOSCE, the faculty support, and the allocated time.
Conclusion
Students were satisfied with the organization and operation of the vOSCE. However, they still preferred the conventional OSCE over the vOSCE. These findings might indicate a further need to expose students to telehealthcare models.

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    Carla Pires
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    Usman Abubakar, A'isyah Humaira' Mohd Salehudin, Nik Afiqah Athirah Nik Mohd Asri, Nur Atiqah Mohammad Rohi, Nur Hasyimah Ramli, Nur Izzah Mohd Khairuddin, Nur Fariesya Saiful Izham, Siti Hajar Nasrullah, Auwal Adam Sa’ad
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    Mona Arekat, Mohamed Hany Shehata, Abdelhalim Deifalla, Ahmed Al-Ansari, Archana Kumar, Mohamed Alsenbesy, Hamdi Alshenawi, Amgad El-Agroudy, Mariwan Husni, Diaa Rizk, Abdelaziz Elamin, Afif Ben Salah, Hani Atwa
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Reviews
Assessment methods and the validity and reliability of measurement tools in online objective structured clinical examinations: a systematic scoping review  
Jonathan Zachary Felthun, Silas Taylor, Boaz Shulruf, Digby Wigram Allen
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2021;18:11.   Published online June 1, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2021.18.11
  • 4,918 View
  • 342 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has required educators to adapt the in-person objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to online settings in order for it to remain a critical component of the multifaceted assessment of a student’s competency. This systematic scoping review aimed to summarize the assessment methods and validity and reliability of the measurement tools used in current online OSCE (hereafter, referred to as teleOSCE) approaches. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines. Articles were eligible if they reported any form of performance assessment, in any field of healthcare, delivered in an online format. Two reviewers independently screened the results and analyzed relevant studies. Eleven articles were included in the analysis. Pre-recorded videos were used in 3 studies, while observations by remote examiners through an online platform were used in 7 studies. Acceptability as perceived by students was reported in 2 studies. This systematic scoping review identified several insights garnered from implementing teleOSCEs, the components transferable from telemedicine, and the need for systemic research to establish the ideal teleOSCE framework. TeleOSCEs may be able to improve the accessibility and reproducibility of clinical assessments and equip students with the requisite skills to effectively practice telemedicine in the future.

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  • Empirical analysis comparing the tele-objective structured clinical examination and the in-person assessment in Australia
    Jonathan Zachary Felthun, Silas Taylor, Boaz Shulruf, Digby Wigram Allen
    Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions.2021; 18: 23.     CrossRef
The effectiveness of cultural competence education in enhancing knowledge acquisition, performance, attitudes, and student satisfaction among undergraduate health science students: a scoping review  
Elio Arruzza, Minh Chau
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2021;18:3.   Published online February 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2021.18.3
  • 5,915 View
  • 401 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Cultural competence in healthcare assists in the delivery of culturally sensitive and high-quality services. This scoping review aims to provide an overview of the available evidence and to examine the effectiveness of classroom-based intervention strategies used to enhance the cultural competence of undergraduate health science students.
Methods
A comprehensive and systematic literature search was undertaken in databases, including Cochrane Library, Medline, and Emcare. Articles were eligible if they employed an experimental study design to assess classroom-based cultural competency education for university students across the health science disciplines. Two reviewers independently screened and extracted relevant data pertaining to study and participant characteristics using a charting table. The outcomes included knowledge, attitudes, skills, and perceived benefits.
Results
Ten studies were analysed. Diverse approaches to cultural education exist in terms of the mode, frequency, and duration of interventions. For the knowledge outcome, students who experienced cultural education interventions yielded higher post-test scores than their baseline cultural knowledge, but without a significant difference from the scores of students who did not receive interventions. Data relating to the skills domain demonstrated positive effects for students after experiencing interventions. Overall, students were satisfied with their experiences and demonstrated improvements in confidence and attitudes towards culturally competent practice.
Conclusion
Across health science disciplines, cultural competency interventions were shown to be effective in enhancing knowledge acquisition, performance of skills, attitudes, and student satisfaction. Future research is necessary to address the significant absence of control arms in the current literature, and to assess long-term effects and patient-related outcomes.

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    Mario R Smith, Maryam Papadakis, Erica Munnik
    Journal of Intellectual Disabilities.2022; : 174462952110504.     CrossRef
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    Tracy S. Wang, Eugene S. Kim, Quan-Yang Duh, Ankush Gosain, Lillian S. Kao, Anai N. Kothari, Susan Tsai, Jennifer F. Tseng, Allan Tsung, Kasper S. Wang, Steven D. Wexner
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  • Improving Cultural Competence and Self-Efficacy Among Postgraduate Nursing Students: Results of an Online Cultural Care Training Program
    Mohammad Mahdi Fadaeinia, Sakineh Miri, Mansooreh Azizzadeh Forouzi, Callista Roy, Jamileh Farokhzadian
    Journal of Transcultural Nursing.2022; 33(5): 642.     CrossRef
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    Christoph Golz, Annie Oulevey Bachmann, Tiziana Sala Defilippis, Andrea Kobleder, Karin Anne Peter, René Schaffert, Xenia Schwarzenbach, Thomas Kampel, Sabine Hahn
    BMC Medical Education.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Costas S. Constantinou, Panayiota Andreou, Monica Nikitara, Alexia Papageorgiou
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Brief report
Is dental autotransplantation underestimated and underused by Syrian dentists?  
Nuraldeen Maher Al-Khanati, Zafin Kara Beit
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2021;18:18.   Published online August 4, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2021.18.18
  • 3,704 View
  • 251 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Dental autotransplantation (DAT) is a surgical procedure in which a donor's tooth is extracted and transplanted from one site to another in the same person. This treatment modality has received considerable attention worldwide in recent years due to its potential advantages over implants. A survey-based study evaluated dentists’ attitudes towards and practice of DAT in Damascus, Syria from September to December 2020. We asked respondents whether they considered this treatment modality when developing treatment plans and whether they view it viable. Only 73 of the 258 respondents (28.3%) stated that they considered DAT as a treatment option. Additionally, 153 respondents (59.3%) either did not view DAT as a viable treatment option or did not know whether it is viable. DAT was underestimated and underused among Syrian dentists. Given this gap in real-world knowledge and practice, academic dental institutions in Syria should place a greater focus on emerging evidence-based knowledge and protocols regarding this treatment option.

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  • Reconsidering some standards in immediate autotransplantation of teeth: Case report with 2-year follow-up
    Nuraldeen Maher Al-Khanati, Zafin Kara Beit
    Annals of Medicine and Surgery.2022; 75: 103470.     CrossRef
  • Effect of restoration material on marginal bone resorption around modified anatomic zirconia dental implants: A randomised controlled trial
    Alaa Aldebes, Nuraldeen Maher Al-Khanati, Jihad Abou Nassar, Nour Al-Deen Kharboutly, Feras Aldamman
    Annals of Medicine and Surgery.2022; 80: 104313.     CrossRef
  • Should we predict poor prognosis in autotransplantation of teeth with completed root formation?
    Nuraldeen Maher Al-Khanati, Zafin Kara Beit
    Annals of Medicine and Surgery.2022; 81: 104501.     CrossRef
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    Nuraldeen M Al-Khanati, Ahmad Albassal, Zafin Kara Beit
    Cureus.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Educational/faculty development material
Innovative digital tools for new trends in teaching and assessment methods in medical and dental education  
Jung-Chul Park, Hyuk-Jae Edward Kwon, Chul Woon Chung
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2021;18:13.   Published online June 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2021.18.13
  • 5,329 View
  • 397 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
With the goal of providing optimal care to patients, student-centered active learning and the development of clinical competency have become vital components of the education of future physicians capable of sustainably coping with future challenges. However, the shape of future medicine is dramatically changing based on advances in information and communication technology, and the current classroom model seems to have difficulties in fully preparing students for the future of medicine. New trends in teaching and assessment methods include computer-aided instruction, virtual patients, augmented reality, human patient simulations, and virtual reality for the assessment of students’ competency. The digital technologies introduced in medical and dental education include Google Forms to collect students’ answers, YouTube livestreaming, Google Art & Culture (an online art museum), and choose-your-own-adventure as a story-telling technique. Innovations in digital technology will lead the way toward a revolution in medical and dental education, allowing learning to be individualized, interactive, and efficient.

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    Sun Huh
    Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions.2022; 19: 2.     CrossRef
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    Kelvin I. Afrashtehfar, Aiman S. H. Abu-Fanas
    Education Sciences.2022; 12(8): 538.     CrossRef
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    Nina Vadiei, Jeannie K. Lee
    Mental Health Clinician.2022; 12(4): 225.     CrossRef
  • Medical students’ self-assessed efficacy and satisfaction with training on endotracheal intubation and central venous catheterization with smart glasses in Taiwan: a non-equivalent control-group pre- and post-test study
    Yu-Fan Lin, Chien-Ying Wang, Yen-Hsun Huang, Sheng-Min Lin, Ying-Ying Yang
    Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions.2022; 19: 25.     CrossRef
Research articles
Comparison of the use of manikins and simulated patients in a multidisciplinary in situ medical simulation program for healthcare professionals in the United Kingdom  
Marrit Meerdink, Joshua Khan
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2021;18:8.   Published online April 20, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2021.18.8
  • 4,752 View
  • 314 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Simulation training is increasingly popular in healthcare education, and often relies on specially designed manikins. However, it is also possible to work with actors, or simulated patients (SPs), which may provide a greater sense of realism. This study aimed to compare these 2 approaches, to ascertain which makes healthcare professionals feel most comfortable, which leads to the greatest improvement in confidence, and which is most beneficial to learning.
Methods
This study was embedded in a pre-existing multidisciplinary in situ simulation program. A multidisciplinary group of learners from a range of backgrounds—including nurses, doctors, and other allied health professionals—were asked to complete a questionnaire about their learning preferences. We collected 204 responses from 40 simulation sessions over 4 months, from September to December 2019. Of these 204 responses, 123 described using an SP and 81 described using a manikin.
Results
We found that 58% of respondents believed they would feel more comfortable working with an actor, while 17% would feel more comfortable using a manikin. Learners who used both modalities reported a significant increase in confidence (P<0.0001 for both). Participants felt that both modalities were beneficial to learning, but SPs provided significantly more benefits to learning than manikins (P<0.0001). The most common reason favoring SP-based simulation was the greater realism.
Conclusion
In scenarios that could reasonably be provided using either modality, we suggest that educators should give greater consideration to using SP-based simulation.

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    Begoña Bartolomé Villar, Irene Real Benlloch, Ana De la Hoz Calvo, Gleyvis Coro-Montanet
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(18): 11387.     CrossRef
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    Meghan Doelger, Karen Kesten, Bonnie Sakallaris
    The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing.2022; 53(10): 465.     CrossRef
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    Matthew Bradley
    Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions.2022; 19: 21.     CrossRef
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    Kamil Torres, Phillip Evans, Izabela Mamcarz, Natalia Radczuk, Anna Torres
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Changes in academic performance in the online, integrated system-based curriculum implemented due to the COVID-19 pandemic in a medical school in Korea  
Do-Hwan Kim, Hyo Jeong Lee, Yanyan Lin, Ye Ji Kang
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2021;18:24.   Published online September 23, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2021.18.24
  • 4,109 View
  • 271 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
This study examined how students’ academic performance changed after undergoing a transition to online learning during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, based on the test results of 16 integrated courses conducted in 3 semesters at Hanyang University College of Medicine in Korea.
Methods
For the 16 required courses that formed an integrated system-based curriculum running for 3 semesters, the major examinations’ raw scores were collected for each student. Percent-correct scores were used in the subsequent analysis. We used the t-test to compare grades between 2019 and 2020, and the Cohen D was calculated as a measure of effect size. The correlation of scores between courses was calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients.
Results
There was a significant decrease in scores in 2020 for 10 courses (62.5%). While most of the integrated system-based curriculum test scores showed strong correlations, with coefficients of 0.6 or higher in both 2019 and 2020, the correlation coefficients were generally higher in 2020. When students were divided into low, middle, and high achievement groups, low-achieving students consistently showed declining test scores in all 3 semesters.
Conclusion
Our findings suggest that the transition to online classes due to COVID-19 has led to an overall decline in academic performance. This overall decline, which may occur when the curriculum is centered on recorded lectures, needs to be addressed. Further, medical schools need to consider establishing a support system for the academic development of low-achieving students.

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    Ming‐Fong Chang, Meng‐Lin Liao, June‐Horng Lue, Chi‐Chuan Yeh
    Anatomical Sciences Education.2022; 15(3): 476.     CrossRef
  • Educational impact of an active learning session with 6-lead mobile electrocardiography on medical students’ knowledge of cardiovascular physiology during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States: a survey-based observational study
    Alexandra Camille Greb, Emma Altieri, Irene Masini, Emily Helena Frisch, Milton Leon Greenberg
    Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions.2022; 19: 12.     CrossRef
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    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Editorial
The Journal Citation Indicator has arrived for Emerging Sources Citation Index journals, including the Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions, in June 2021
Sun Huh
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2021;18:20.   Published online August 2, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2021.18.20
  • 4,051 View
  • 238 Download
  • 3 Citations
PDF

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    Annals of Laboratory Medicine.2022; 42(3): 321.     CrossRef
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    Sun Huh
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Research article
Medical students’ pattern of self-directed learning prior to and during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic period and its implications for Free Open Access Meducation within the United Kingdom  
Jack Barton, Kathrine Sofia Rallis, Amber Elyse Corrigan, Ella Hubbard, Antonia Round, Greta Portone, Ashvin Kuri, Tien Tran, Yu Zhi Phuah, Katie Knight, Jonathan Round
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2021;18:5.   Published online April 6, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2021.18.5
  • 5,927 View
  • 342 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Self-directed learning (SDL) has been increasingly emphasized within medical education. However, little is known about the SDL resources medical students use. This study aimed to identify patterns in medical students’ SDL behaviors, their SDL resource choices, factors motivating these choices, and the potential impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on these variables.
Methods
An online cross-sectional survey comprising multiple-choice, ranked, and free-text response questions were disseminated to medical students across all 41 UK medical schools between April and July 2020. Independent study hours and sources of study materials prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic were compared. Motivational factors guiding resource choices and awareness of Free Open Access Meducation were also investigated.
Results
The target sample was 75 students per medical school across a total of 41 medical schools within the United Kingdom (3,075 total students), and 1,564 responses were analyzed. University-provided information comprised the most commonly used component of independent study time, but a minority of total independent study time. Independent study time increased as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic (P<0.001). All sub-cohorts except males reported a significant increase in the use of resources such as free websites and question banks (P<0.05) and paid websites (P<0.05) as a result of the pandemic. Accessibility was the most influential factor guiding resource choice (Friedman’s μrank=3.97, P<0.001).
Conclusion
The use of learning resources independent of university provision is increasing. Educators must ensure equitable access to such materials while supporting students in making informed choices regarding their independent study behaviors.

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  • Medical students’ self-directed learning skills during online learning amid the COVID-19 pandemic in a Korean medical school
    Jihyun Si
    Korean Journal of Medical Education.2022; 34(2): 145.     CrossRef
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    Ernest Z. Low, Niall J. O’Sullivan, Vidushi Sharma, Isabella Sebastian, Roisin Meagher, Dalal Alomairi, Ebraheem H. Alhouti, Claire L. Donohoe, Michael E. Kelly
    Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971 -).2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    T. Delungahawatta, S. S. Dunne, S. Hyde, L. Halpenny, D. McGrath, A. O’Regan, C. P. Dunne
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JEEHP : Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions