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Research articles
Priorities in updating training paradigms in orthopedic manual therapy: an international Delphi study
Damian Keter, David Griswold, Kenneth Learman, Chad Cook
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2023;20:4.   Published online January 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2023.20.4    [Epub ahead of print]
  • 276 View
  • 56 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Orthopedic manual therapy (OMT) education demonstrates significant variability between philosophies and while literature has offered a more comprehensive understanding of the contextual, patient specific, and technique factors which interact to influence outcome, most OMT training paradigms continue to emphasize the mechanical basis for OMT application. The purpose of this study was to establish consensus on modifications & adaptions to training paradigms which need to occur within OMT education to align with current evidence.
Methods
A 3-round Delphi survey instrument designed to identify foundational knowledge to include and omit from OMT education was completed by 28 educators working within high level manual therapy education programs internationally. Round 1 consisted of open-ended questions to identify content in each area. Round 2 and Round 3 allowed participants to rank the themes identified in Round 1.
Results
Consensus was reached on 25 content areas to include within OMT education, 1 content area to omit from OMT education, and 34 knowledge components which should be present in those providing OMT. Support was seen for education promoting understanding the complex psychological, neurophysiological, and biomechanical systems as they relate to both evaluation and treatment effect. While some concepts were more consistently supported there was significant variability in responses which is largely expected to be related to previous training.
Conclusion
The results of this study indicate manual therapy educators understanding of evidence-based practice as support for all 3 tiers of evidence were represented. The results of this study should guide OMT training program development and modification.
Identifying the nutrition support nurses’ tasks using importance–performance analysis in Korea: a descriptive study
Jeong Yun Park
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2023;20:3.   Published online January 18, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2023.20.3    [Epub ahead of print]
  • 79 View
  • 24 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Nutrition support nurse is a member of a nutrition support team and is a health care professional who takes a significant part in all aspects of nutritional care. This study aims to investigate ways to improve the quality of tasks performed by nutrition support nurses through survey questionnaires in Korea.
Methods
An online survey was conducted between October 12 and November 31, 2018. The questionnaire consists of 36 items categorized into 5 subscales: nutrition-focused support care, education and counseling, consultation and coordination, research and quality improvement, and leadership. The importance–performance analysis method was used to confirm the relationship between the importance and performance of nutrition support nurses’ tasks.
Results
A total of 101 nutrition support nurses participated in this survey. The importance (5.56±0.78) and performance (4.50±1.06) of nutrition support nurses’ tasks showed a significant difference (t=11.27, P<0.001). Education, counseling/consultation, and participation in developing their processes and guidelines were identified as low-performance activities compared with their importance.
Conclusion
To intervene nutrition support effectively, nutrition support nurses should have the qualification or competency through the education program based on their practice. Improved awareness of nutrition support nurses participating in research and quality improvement activity for role development is required.
What impacts students’ satisfaction the most from Medicine Student Experience Questionnaire in Australia: a validity study
Pin-Hsiang Huang, Gary Velan, Greg Smith, Melanie Fentoullis, Sean E. Kennedy, Karen J. Gibson, Kerry Uebel, Boaz Shulruf
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2023;20:2.   Published online January 18, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2023.20.2    [Epub ahead of print]
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  • 13 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
This study evaluated the validity of student feedback derived from Medicine Student Experience Questionnaire (MedSEQ), as well as the predictors of students’ satisfaction in the Medicine program.
Methods
Data from MedSEQ applying to the University of New South Wales Medicine program in 2017, 2019, and 2021 were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Cronbach’s α were used to assess the construct validity and reliability of MedSEQ respectively. Hierarchical multiple linear regressions were used to identify the factors that most impact students’ overall satisfaction with the program.
Results
A total of 1,719 students (34.50%) responded to MedSEQ. CFA showed good fit indices (root mean square error of approximation=0.051; comparative fit index=0.939; chi-square/degrees of freedom=6.429). All factors yielded good (α>0.7) or very good (α>0.8) levels of reliability, except the “online resources” factor, which had acceptable reliability (α=0.687). A multiple linear regression model with only demographic characteristics explained 3.8% of the variance in students’ overall satisfaction, whereas the model adding 8 domains from MedSEQ explained 40%, indicating that 36.2% of the variance was attributable to students’ experience across the 8 domains. Three domains had the strongest impact on overall satisfaction: “being cared for,” “satisfaction with teaching,” and “satisfaction with assessment” (β=0.327, 0.148, 0.148, respectively; all with P<0.001).
Conclusion
MedSEQ has good construct validity and high reliability, reflecting students’ satisfaction with the Medicine program. Key factors impacting students’ satisfaction are the perception of being cared for, quality teaching irrespective of the mode of delivery and fair assessment tasks which enhance learning.
Review
Medical students’ satisfaction level with e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic and its related factors: a systematic review
Mahbubeh Tabatabaeichehr, Samane Babaei, Mahdieh Dartomi, Peiman Alesheikh, Amir Tabatabaee, Hamed Mortazavi, Zohreh Khoshgoftar
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2022;19:37.   Published online December 20, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2022.19.37
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  • 65 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
This review investigated medical students’ satisfaction level with e-learning during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and its related factors.
Methods
A comprehensive systematic search was performed of international literature databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Persian databases such as Iranmedex and Scientific Information Database using keywords extracted from Medical Subject Headings such as “Distance learning,” “Distance education,” “Online learning,” “Online education,” and “COVID-19” from the earliest date to July 10, 2022. The quality of the studies included in this review was evaluated using the appraisal tool for cross-sectional studies (AXIS tool).
Results
A total of 15,473 medical science students were enrolled in 24 studies. The level of satisfaction with e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic among medical science students was 51.8%. Factors such as age, gender, clinical year, experience with e-learning before COVID-19, level of study, adaptation content of course materials, interactivity, understanding of the content, active participation of the instructor in the discussion, multimedia use in teaching sessions, adequate time dedicated to the e-learning, stress perception, and convenience had significant relationships with the satisfaction of medical students with e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Conclusion
Therefore, due to the inevitability of online education and e-learning, it is suggested that educational managers and policymakers choose the best online education method for medical students by examining various studies in this field to increase their satisfaction with e-learning.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Physician Assistant Students’ Perception of Online Didactic Education: A Cross-Sectional Study
    Daniel L Anderson, Jeffrey L Alexander
    Cureus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Educational/faculty development materials
Common models and approaches for the clinical educator to plan effective feedback encounters  
Cesar Orsini, Veena Rodrigues, Jorge Tricio, Margarita Rosel
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2022;19:35.   Published online December 19, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2022.19.35
  • 189 View
  • 92 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Giving constructive feedback is crucial for learners to bridge the gap between their current performance and the desired standards of competence. Giving effective feedback is a skill that can be learned, practiced, and improved. Therefore, our aim was to explore models in clinical settings and assess their transferability to different clinical feedback encounters. We identified the 6 most common and accepted feedback models, including the Feedback Sandwich, the Pendleton Rules, the One-Minute Preceptor, the SET-GO model, the R2C2 (Rapport/Reaction/Content/Coach), and the ALOBA (Agenda Led Outcome-based Analysis) model. We present a handy resource describing their structure, strengths and weaknesses, requirements for educators and learners, and suitable feedback encounters for use for each model. These feedback models represent practical frameworks for educators to adopt but also to adapt to their preferred style, combining and modifying them if necessary to suit their needs and context.
Research articles
Physical therapy students’ perception of their ability of clinical and clinical decision-making skills enhanced after simulation-based learning courses in the United States: a repeated measures design  
Fabian Bizama, Mansoor Alameri, Kristy Jean Demers, Derrick Ferguson Campbell
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2022;19:34.   Published online December 19, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2022.19.34
  • 201 View
  • 65 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
It aimed to investigate physical therapy students’ perception of their ability of clinical and clinical decision-making skills after a simulation-based learning course in the United States.
Methods
Survey questionnaires were administered to voluntary participants, including 44 second and third-year physical therapy students of the University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences during 2021–2022. Thirty-six questionnaire items consisted of 4 demographic items, 1 general evaluation, 21 test items for clinical decision-making skills, and 4 clinical skill items. Descriptive and inferential statistics evaluated differences in students’ perception of their ability in clinical decision-making and clinical skills, pre- and post-simulation, and post-first clinical experience during 2021–2022.
Results
Friedman test revealed a significant increase from pre- to post-simulation in perception of the ability of clinical and clinical decision-making skills total tool score (P<0.001), clinical decision-making 21-item score (P<0.001), and clinical skills score (P<0.001). No significant differences were found between post-simulation and post-first clinical experience. Post-hoc tests indicated a significant difference between pre-simulation and post-simulation (P<0.001) and between pre-simulation and post-first clinical experience (P<0.001). Forty-three students (97.6%) either strongly agreed (59.1%) or agreed (38.5%) that simulation was a valuable learning experience.
Conclusion
The above findings suggest that simulation-based learning helped students begin their first clinical experience with enhanced clinical and clinical decision-making skills.
Possibility of independent use of the yes/no Angoff and Hofstee methods for the standard setting of the Korean Medical Licensing Examination written test: a descriptive study  
Do-Hwan Kim, Ye Ji Kang, Hoon-Ki Park
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2022;19:33.   Published online December 12, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2022.19.33
  • 146 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
This study aims to apply the yes/no Angoff and Hofstee methods to actual Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE) 2022 written examination data to estimate cut scores for the written KMLE.
Methods
Fourteen panelists gathered to derive the cut score of the 86th KMLE written examination data using the yes/no Angoff method. The panel reviewed the items individually before the meeting and shared their respective understanding of the minimum-competency physician. The standard setting process was conducted in 5 rounds over a total of 800 minutes. In addition, 2 rounds of the Hofstee method were conducted before starting the standard setting process and after the second round of yes/no Angoff.
Results
For yes/no Angoff, as each round progressed, the panel’s opinion gradually converged to a cut score of 198 points, and the final passing rate was 95.1%. The Hofstee cut score was 208 points out of a maximum 320 with a passing rate of 92.1% at the first round. It scored 204 points with a passing rate of 93.3% in the second round.
Conclusion
The difference between the cut scores obtained through yes/no Angoff and Hofstee methods did not exceed 2% points, and they were within the range of cut scores from previous studies. In both methods, the difference between the panelists decreased as rounds were repeated. Overall, our findings suggest the acceptability of cut scores and the possibility of independent use of both methods.
Brief report
Self-directed learning quotient and common learning types of pre-medical students in Korea by the Multi-Dimensional Learning Strategy Test 2nd edition: a descriptive study
Sun Kim, A Ra Cho, Chul Woon Chung
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2022;19:32.   Published online November 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2022.19.32
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
This study aimed to find the self-directed learning quotient and common learning types of pre-medical students through the confirmation of 4 characteristics of learning strategies, including personality, motivation, emotion, and behavior. The response data were collected from 277 out of 294 target first-year pre-medical students from 2019 to 2021, using the Multi-Dimensional Learning Strategy Test 2nd edition. The most common learning type was a self-directed type (44.0%), stagnant type (33.9%), latent type (14.4%), and conscientiousness type (7.6%). The self-directed learning index was high (29.2%), moderate (24.6%), somewhat high (21.7%), somewhat low (14.4%), and low (10.1%). This study confirmed that many students lacked self-directed learning capabilities for learning strategies. In addition, it was found that the difficulties experienced by each student were different, and the variables resulting in difficulties were also diverse. It may provide insights into how to develop programs that can help students increase their self-directed learning capability.
Research articles
Medical student selection process enhanced by improving selection algorithms and changing the focus of interviews in Australia: a descriptive study
Boaz Shulruf, Gary Mayer Velan, Sean Edward Kennedy
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2022;19:31.   Published online November 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2022.19.31
  • 175 View
  • 52 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
The study investigates the efficacy of new features introduced to the selection process for medical school at the University of New South Wales, Australia: (1) considering the relative ranks rather than scores of the Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test and Australian Tertiary Admission Rank; (2) structured interview focusing on interpersonal interaction and concerns should the applicants become students; and (3) embracing interviewers’ diverse perspectives.
Methods
Data from 5 cohorts of students were analyzed, comparing outcomes of the second year in the medicine program of 4 cohorts of the old selection process and 1 of the new process. The main analysis comprised multiple linear regression models for predicting academic, clinical, and professional outcomes, by section tools and demographic variables.
Results
Selection interview marks from the new interview (512 applicants, 2 interviewers each) were analyzed for inter-rater reliability, which identified a high level of agreement (kappa=0.639). No such analysis was possible for the old interview since it required interviewers to reach a consensus. Multivariate linear regression models utilizing outcomes for 5 cohorts (N=905) revealed that the new selection process was much more effective in predicting academic and clinical achievement in the program (R2=9.4%–17.8% vs. R2=1.5%–8.4%).
Conclusion
The results suggest that the medical student selection process can be significantly enhanced by employing a non-compensatory selection algorithm; and using a structured interview focusing on interpersonal interaction and concerns should the applicants become students; as well as embracing interviewers’ diverse perspectives.
Is online objective structured clinical examination teaching an acceptable replacement in post-COVID-19 medical education in the United Kingdom?: a descriptive study  
Vashist Motkur, Aniket Bharadwaj, Nimalesh Yogarajah
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2022;19:30.   Published online November 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2022.19.30
  • 356 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) restrictions resulted in an increased emphasis on virtual communication in medical education. This study assessed the acceptability of virtual teaching in an online objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) series and its role in future education.
Methods
Six surgical OSCE stations were designed, covering common surgical topics, with specific tasks testing data interpretation, clinical knowledge, and communication skills. These were delivered via Zoom to students who participated in student/patient/examiner role-play. Feedback was collected by asking students to compare online teaching with previous experiences of in-person teaching. Descriptive statistics were used for Likert response data, and thematic analysis for free-text items.
Results
Sixty-two students provided feedback, with 81% of respondents finding online instructions preferable to paper equivalents. Furthermore, 65% and 68% found online teaching more efficient and accessible, respectively, than in-person teaching. Only 34% found communication with each other easier online; Forty percent preferred online OSCE teaching to in-person teaching. Students also expressed feedback in positive and negative free-text comments.
Conclusion
The data suggested that generally students were unwilling for online teaching to completely replace in-person teaching. The success of online teaching was dependent on the clinical skill being addressed; some were less amenable to a virtual setting. However, online OSCE teaching could play a role alongside in-person teaching.
Enhanced numeracy skills following team-based learning in United States pharmacy students: a longitudinal cohort study  
Rob Edwin Carpenter, Leanne Coyne, Dave Silberman, Jody Kyoto Takemoto
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2022;19:29.   Published online October 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2022.19.29
  • 361 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
The literature suggests that the ability to numerate cannot be fully understood without accounting for the social context in which mathematical activity is represented. Team-based learning (TBL) is an andragogical approach with theoretical links to sociocultural and community-of-practice learning. This study aimed to quantitatively explore the impact of TBL instruction on numeracy development in 2 cohorts of pharmacy students and identify the impact of TBL instruction on numeracy development from a social perspective for healthcare education.
Methods
Two cohorts of students were administered the Health Science Reasoning Test-Numeracy (HSRT-N) before beginning pharmacy school. Two years after using TBL as the primary method of instruction, both comprehensive and domain data from the HSRT-N were analyzed.
Results
In total, 163 pharmacy student scores met the inclusion criteria. The students’ numeracy skills measured by HSRT-N improved after 2 years of TBL instruction.
Conclusion
Numeracy was the most significantly improved HSRT-N domain in pharmacy students following two years of TBL instruction. Although a closer examination of numeracy development in TBL is warranted, initial data suggest that TBL instruction may be an adequate proxy for advancing numeracy in a cohort of pharmacy students. TBL may encourage a social practice of mathematics to improve pharmacy students’ ability to numerate critically.
Factors affecting nursing and health technician students' satisfaction with distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic in Morocco: a descriptive study  
Aziz Naciri, Mohamed Radid, Abderrahmane Achbani, Mohamed Amine Baba, Ahmed Kharbach, Ghizlane Chemsi
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2022;19:28.   Published online October 17, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2022.19.28
  • 668 View
  • 168 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Distance learning describes any learning based on the use of new multimedia technologies and the internet to allow students to acquire new knowledge and skills at a distance. This study aimed to determine satisfaction levels with distance learning and associated factors among nursing and health technician students during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Morocco.
Methods
An descriptive study was conducted between April and June 2022 among nursing and health technician students using a self-administered instrument. The student satisfaction questionnaire consists of 24 questions categorized into 6 subscales: instructor, technology, course setup, interaction, outcomes, and overall satisfaction. It was based on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with student satisfaction during distance learning.
Results
A total of 330 students participated in this study, and 176 students (53.3%) were satisfied with the distance learning activities. A mean score higher than 2.8 out of 5 was obtained for all subscales. Multiple regression analysis showed that students’ year of study (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28–4.27) and internet quality (aOR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29–0.77) were the significant factors associated with students’ satisfaction during distance learning.
Conclusion
This study highlights the satisfaction level of students and factors that influenced it during distance learning. A thorough understanding of student satisfaction with digital environments will contribute to the successful implementation of distance learning devices in nursing.
Equal Z standard-setting method to estimate the minimum number of panelists for a medical school’s objective structured clinical examination in Taiwan: a simulation study  
Ying-Ying Yang, Pin-Hsiang Huang, Ling-Yu Yang, Chia-Chang Huang, Chih-Wei Liu, Shiau-Shian Huang, Chen-Huan Chen, Fa-Yauh Lee, Shou-Yen Kao, Boaz Shulruf
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2022;19:27.   Published online October 17, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2022.19.27
  • 716 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Undertaking a standard-setting exercise is a common method for setting pass/fail cut scores for high-stakes examinations. The recently introduced equal Z standard-setting method (EZ method) has been found to be a valid and effective alternative for the commonly used Angoff and Hofstee methods and their variants. The current study aims to estimate the minimum number of panelists required for obtaining acceptable and reliable cut scores using the EZ method.
Methods
The primary data were extracted from 31 panelists who used the EZ method for setting cut scores for a 12-station of medical school’s final objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in Taiwan. For this study, a new data set composed of 1,000 random samples of different panel sizes, ranging from 5 to 25 panelists, was established and analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to measure the differences in the cut scores set by the sampled groups, across all sizes within each station.
Results
On average, a panel of 10 experts or more yielded cut scores with confidence more than or equal to 90% and 15 experts yielded cut scores with confidence more than or equal to 95%. No significant differences in cut scores associated with panel size were identified for panels of 5 or more experts.
Conclusion
The EZ method was found to be valid and feasible. Less than an hour was required for 12 panelists to assess 12 OSCE stations. Calculating the cut scores required only basic statistical skills.
Acceptability of the 8-case objective structured clinical examination of medical students in Korea using generalizability theory: a reliability study  
Song Yi Park, Sang-Hwa Lee, Min-Jeong Kim, Ki-Hwan Ji, Ji Ho Ryu
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2022;19:26.   Published online September 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2022.19.26
  • 738 View
  • 170 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
This study investigated whether the reliability was acceptable when the number of cases in the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) decreased from 12 to 8 using generalizability theory (GT).
Methods
This psychometric study analyzed the OSCE data of 439 fourth-year medical students conducted in the Busan and Gyeongnam areas of South Korea from July 12 to 15, 2021. The generalizability study (G-study) considered 3 facets—students (p), cases (c), and items (i)—and designed the analysis as p×(i:c) due to items being nested in a case. The acceptable generalizability (G) coefficient was set to 0.70. The G-study and decision study (D-study) were performed using G String IV ver. 6.3.8 (Papawork, Hamilton, ON, Canada).
Results
All G coefficients except for July 14 (0.69) were above 0.70. The major sources of variance components (VCs) were items nested in cases (i:c), from 51.34% to 57.70%, and residual error (pi:c), from 39.55% to 43.26%. The proportion of VCs in cases was negligible, ranging from 0% to 2.03%.
Conclusion
The case numbers decreased in the 2021 Busan and Gyeongnam OSCE. However, the reliability was acceptable. In the D-study, reliability was maintained at 0.70 or higher if there were more than 21 items/case in 8 cases and more than 18 items/case in 9 cases. However, according to the G-study, increasing the number of items nested in cases rather than the number of cases could further improve reliability. The consortium needs to maintain a case bank with various items to implement a reliable blueprinting combination for the OSCE.
Medical students’ self-assessed efficacy and satisfaction with training on endotracheal intubation and central venous catheterization with smart glasses in Taiwan: a non-equivalent control-group pre- and post-test study  
Yu-Fan Lin, Chien-Ying Wang, Yen-Hsun Huang, Sheng-Min Lin, Ying-Ying Yang
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2022;19:25.   Published online September 2, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2022.19.25
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Endotracheal intubation and central venous catheterization are essential procedures in clinical practice. Simulation-based technology such as smart glasses has been used to facilitate medical students’ training on these procedures. We investigated medical students’ self-assessed efficacy and satisfaction regarding the practice and training of these procedures with smart glasses in Taiwan.
Methods
This observational study enrolled 145 medical students in the 5th and 6th years participating in clerkships at Taipei Veterans General Hospital between October 2020 and December 2021. Students were divided into the smart glasses or the control group and received training at a workshop. The primary outcomes included students’ pre- and post-intervention scores for self-assessed efficacy and satisfaction with the training tool, instructor’s teaching, and the workshop.
Results
The pre-intervention scores for self-assessed efficacy of 5th- and 6th-year medical students in endotracheal intubation and central venous catheterization procedures showed no significant difference. The post-intervention score of self-assessed efficacy in the smart glasses group was better than that of the control group. Moreover, 6th-year medical students in the smart glasses group showed higher satisfaction with the training tool, instructor’s teaching, and workshop than those in the control group.
Conclusion
Smart glasses served as a suitable simulation tool for endotracheal intubation and central venous catheterization procedures training in medical students. Medical students practicing with smart glasses showed improved self-assessed efficacy and higher satisfaction with training, especially for procedural steps in a space-limited field. Simulation training on procedural skills with smart glasses in 5th-year medical students may be adjusted to improve their satisfaction.

JEEHP : Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions