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Michael S. Kelly 1 Article
Medical residents and attending physicians’ perceptions of feedback and teaching in the United States: a qualitative study  
Madeleine Matthiesen, Michael S. Kelly, Kristina Dzara, Arabella Simpkin Begin
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2022;19:9.   Published online April 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2022.19.9
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Residents and attendings agree on the importance of feedback to resident education. However, while faculty report providing frequent feedback, residents often do not perceive receiving it, particularly in the context of teaching. Given the nuanced differences between feedback and teaching, we aimed to explore resident and attending perceptions of feedback and teaching in the clinical setting.
Methods
We conducted a qualitative study of internal medicine residents and attendings from December 2018 through March 2019 at the Massachusetts General Hospital to investigate perceptions of feedback in the inpatient clinical setting. Residents and faculty were recruited to participate in focus groups. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to explore perspectives and barriers to feedback provision and identification.
Results
Five focus groups included 33 total participants in 3 attending (n=20) and 2 resident (n=13) groups. Thematic analysis of focus group transcripts identified 7 themes which organized into 3 thematic categories: (1) disentangling feedback and teaching, (2) delivering high-quality feedback, and (3) experiencing feedback in the group setting. Residents and attendings highlighted important themes in discriminating feedback from teaching. They indicated that while feedback is reactive in response to an action or behavior, teaching is proactive and oriented toward future endeavors.
Conclusion
Confusion between the critical concepts of teaching and feedback may be minimized by allowing them to each have their intended impact, either in response to prior events or aimed toward those yet to take place.

JEEHP : Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions