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Chih-Wei Liu 2 Articles
Equal Z standard-setting method to estimate the minimum number of panelists for a medical school’s objective structured clinical examination in Taiwan: a simulation study  
Ying-Ying Yang, Pin-Hsiang Huang, Ling-Yu Yang, Chia-Chang Huang, Chih-Wei Liu, Shiau-Shian Huang, Chen-Huan Chen, Fa-Yauh Lee, Shou-Yen Kao, Boaz Shulruf
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2022;19:27.   Published online October 17, 2022
  • 1,645 View
  • 116 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Undertaking a standard-setting exercise is a common method for setting pass/fail cut scores for high-stakes examinations. The recently introduced equal Z standard-setting method (EZ method) has been found to be a valid and effective alternative for the commonly used Angoff and Hofstee methods and their variants. The current study aims to estimate the minimum number of panelists required for obtaining acceptable and reliable cut scores using the EZ method.
The primary data were extracted from 31 panelists who used the EZ method for setting cut scores for a 12-station of medical school’s final objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in Taiwan. For this study, a new data set composed of 1,000 random samples of different panel sizes, ranging from 5 to 25 panelists, was established and analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to measure the differences in the cut scores set by the sampled groups, across all sizes within each station.
On average, a panel of 10 experts or more yielded cut scores with confidence more than or equal to 90% and 15 experts yielded cut scores with confidence more than or equal to 95%. No significant differences in cut scores associated with panel size were identified for panels of 5 or more experts.
The EZ method was found to be valid and feasible. Less than an hour was required for 12 panelists to assess 12 OSCE stations. Calculating the cut scores required only basic statistical skills.
Effects of virtual reality training on decreasing the rates of needlestick or sharp injury in new-coming medical and nursing interns in Taiwan  
Szu-Hsien Wu, Chia-Chang Huang, Shiau-Shian Huang, Ying-Ying Yang, Chih-Wei Liu, Boaz Shulruf, Chen-Huan Chen
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2020;17:1.   Published online January 20, 2020
  • 10,985 View
  • 411 Download
  • 33 Web of Science
  • 30 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Senior nursing and medical interns’ lack of familiarity and confidence with respect to practicing universal precaution for the prevention of occupational needlestick or sharp injuries may harm themselves. Trainees’ self-reported needlestick or sharp injury rate was known to be especially high during the first 2 months of internship in Taiwan. This prospective cohort study aimed to assess the effect of newly developed virtual reality (VR) game, which uses Gagne’s learning model to improve universal precaution for needlestick or sharp injury prevention and decrease the rates of needle stick or sharp injuries in new-coming medical and nursing interns in Taiwan.
From 2017 to 2019, the VR system was developed and applied in training of 59 new-coming nursing and 50 medical interns. Occupational needlestick or sharp injury prevention was sought to be achieved through a game of right and wrong choices for safe or unsafe universal precaution behaviors.
In comparison with medical interns, a higher proportion of nursing interns had past experiences of deep occupational needlestick or sharp injury. Before VR training, the familiarity and confidence for needlestick or sharp injury prevention were higher among nursing interns than medical interns. Trainees with past experiences of deep needlestick or sharp injury exhibited better performance on the accuracy rate and time needed to complete 20 decisions than those without past experiences in VR practice. All trainees showed an improved performance after VR training. A high proportion of trainees reported that the VR-based training significantly decreased their anxiety about needlestick or sharp injury prevention.
This self-developed VR game system using Gagne’s flow improved universal precaution for needlestick or sharp injury prevention and reduced the needlestick or sharp injury rates in the first 2 months of nursing and medical internship.


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JEEHP : Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions