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J Educ Eval Health Prof > Epub ahead of print
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2022; 19: 9.
Published online April 26, 2022.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2022.19.9
[Epub ahead of print]
Medical residents and attending physicians’ perceptions of feedback and teaching in the United States: a qualitative study
Madeleine I. Matthiesen1,2,3  , Michael S. Kelly1,2,3  , Kristina Dzara4,5,6  , Arabella Simpkin Begin1,3 
1Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
2Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
3Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
4Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medical Education and Center for Leadership and Innovation in Medical Education, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA
5Department of Medical Education, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA
6Center for Leadership and Innovation in Medical Education, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA
Correspondence  Madeleine I. Matthiesen ,Email: mimatthiesen@partners.org
Editor:  Sun Huh, Hallym University, Korea
Submitted: March 17, 2022  Accepted after revision: April 19, 2022
*Madeleine I. Matthiesen and Michael S. Kelly contributed equally to this study as co-first authors.
Abstract
Purpose
Residents and attendings agree on the importance of feedback to resident education. However, while faculty report providing frequent feedback, residents often do not perceive receiving it, particularly in the context of teaching. Given the nuanced differences between feedback and teaching, we aimed to explore resident and attending perceptions of feedback and teaching in the clinical setting.
Methods
We conducted a qualitative study of internal medicine residents and attendings from December 2018 through March 2019 at the Massachusetts General Hospital to investigate perceptions of feedback in the inpatient clinical setting. Residents and faculty were recruited to participate in focus groups. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to explore perspectives and barriers to feedback provision and identification.
Results
Five focus groups included 33 total participants in 3 attending (n=20) and 2 resident (n=13) groups. Thematic analysis of focus group transcripts identified 7 themes which organized into 3 thematic categories: (1) disentangling feedback and teaching, (2) delivering high-quality feedback, and (3) experiencing feedback in the group setting. Residents and attendings highlighted important themes in discriminating feedback from teaching. They indicated that while feedback is reactive in response to an action or behavior, teaching is proactive and oriented toward future endeavors.
Conclusion
Confusion between the critical concepts of teaching and feedback may be minimized by allowing them to each have their intended impact, either in response to prior events or aimed toward those yet to take place.
Keywords: Feedback; Internship and residency; Teaching; Qualitative research
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